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Basic Considerations in Case Study DefinitionIt is a research method commonly used in social sciences. Its methodology enables a researcher to analyze and investigate closely in a particular context. It is a very useful research strategy because it is empirical research that investigates a phenomenon within its context in the most realistic way possible. They are based on an in-depth investigation of a single individual, group or event to explore the causes of the underlying principles. It is an exploratory and descriptive analysis in relation to a person, group or event. Evidence of qualitative form based on diversified sources of evidence and facilitates the later development of theories or propositions. Typically, your methodology selects a limited geographical area or a fairly small and controlled number of people. It allows a systematization in the form of observing events, collecting data, analyzing information and reporting results. Context and Historical Facts of the Case Study Definition As with almost all academic terms, scientific and theories, each concept and its definition changes and adapts over the years, and the definition of a case study does not escape the trend. It is believed that the case study method was first introduced in the social sciences with Frederic Le Play in 1829. In the twentieth century, case studies began to take place in the disciplines of anthropology, sociology, and psychology. In the 1960s and 1970s, researchers began to look for alternative research methods, thus making possible the evolution of case studies finally accepted as a valid method by the scientific community in the 1980s. It is widely used by historians, social workers, teachers, etc. as a learning tool, since through the careful analysis and discussion of numerous case studies, researchers are able to recognize crucial factors in certain contexts and thus contribute to the resolution of a problem. Ethnography uses this method and can be commonly found in communication case studies. Ethnography is the description, interpretation and analysis of a culture or social group, through field research in the natural environment of the group studied. The main method of ethnographic research is through observation where the researcher observes the participants over an extended period of time within the participants’ own environment.
Types of Case StudyIllustrative: These are mainly descriptive studies. They typically use one or two instances of an event to show what a situation is like. They serve primarily to reveal something unfamiliar and to make it familiar as well as to give readers a common language on the subject in question. Exploratory (or Pilot): These are condensed case studies usually conducted prior to implementing a large-scale investigation. Its basic function is to help identify issues and select the types of measurement before the main investigation. The main obstacle to this type of study is that the initial findings may seem convincing enough to be released prematurely as conclusions. Cumulative: These serve to aggregate information from various studies or investigations collected at different times. The intention of this type of study is to use previous studies in order to allow greater generalization without additional cost or time spent in new studies. Critics: These examine one or more sites for the purpose of examining a very specific situation with little or no interest in generalization, or to challenge or challenge a highly generalized or universal indication. This method is useful for answering cause and effect questions. Historical: they study a certain event over time offering a holistic analysis and description from a historical point of view. Observational: primary research methods to collect data through enhanced participatory observation with informal and formal interviews. Case Study – Features, Advantages and Disadvantages
- Particularist – Focus on something very concrete and particular, whether a person, an event, a phenomenon or a group.
- Descriptive – Thanks to the fact that it is totally dedicated to only one object of study, the final product of this type of research is rich in content, description and information.
- Heuristic – Enriches readers’ knowledge and understanding for a particular phenomenon.
- Advantages: Trustworthy, scientifically valid methodology, provides detailed information about an individual in a particular environment, based on real-life situations, flexible and allows the contextualization of the event.